Check hydraulic brake system integrity

When a constant force is applied to the brake pedal for 10 seconds:

  • after the initial travel, the service brake pedal travels to the floor; or
  • the brake system failure indicator comes on.

  • When the service brakes are firmly applied, less than 20% of the pedal travel remains (unless the brake system is designed for greater travel).
  • When soft pumping makes the brake pedal travel to the floor

Key Terms

  • Bill of Lading – The receipt for your household goods and the contract for their transportation.
  • Extraordinary Value or High Value Article – An article of high or extraordinary value is any item whose value exceeds $100 per pound.
  • Hazardous Materials – Explosives, compressed gases, flammable liquids and solids, oxidizers, poisons, corrosives and radioactive materials. Many common household items are considered hazardous materials. These include nail polish remover, paints, paint thinners, lighter fluid, gasoline, propane cylinders, and automotive repair and maintenance chemicals.
  • Interstate Move – A move in which goods are transported from one State to another.
  • Intrastate Move – A move in which goods are transported from one point to another within the same State; no State borders are crossed.
  • Tariff – A list of rules, regulations, available services and resulting charges. Each mover publishes its own tariffs and these must be provided to you upon request.
  • Valuation – The designated dollar value of your shipment.

Auxiliary Power Unit

APU’s provide a larger array of comfort features for drivers looking to reduce idling. APU’s can provide heat, air conditioning, power for household electrical devices and engine heat. Most devices combine a small heater, a compressor for air conditioning and an alternator. APU’s may be powered by diesel fuel directly from the tractor fuel tank, or by a bank of rechargeable batteries. Diesel driven APU’s can operate for 5 hours or more on a single gallon of diesel fuel. Costs for these devices can range from $3500 to $9000, but are typically in the $6000 to $7000 range. For a partial list of manufacturers and device specifications, please visit the SmartWay website . For locomotives APUs automatically shut down the main locomotive engine idle while maintaining all vital main engine systems at greatly reduced fuel consumption.

Check noise emissions

This section must be read in conjunction with Appendix B6 - Sound level meters.

  • Any noise reducing or absorbing equipment is missing.

  • Changes to the original design of the engine, fuel system, air inlet system, or exhaust system all have the potential to affect compliance of the vehicle with noise standards. Where any such modifications have been carried out a noise test may be necessary to ensure that the vehicle complies with the exhaust noise limits. Such modifications could also affect compliance with exhaust emission requirements.

Check mirrors

  • Any reflective surface of a compulsory rear view mirror:

    • has a missing section;

    • is cracked;

    • is deteriorated;

    • is obscured;

    • where fitted to the right side, does not have a flat surface of at least 150cm2 (it may also incorporate a curved portion).

  • Mirrors are not securely mounted or missing;

  • Any compulsory left side mirror does not have a reflecting surface of at least 150 cm2;

  • Any compulsory mirror does not provide a clear view of the road to the rear of the vehicle.

Check seats

  • Seat frames or attaching points are loose, cracked, broken or have fasteners missing;
  • Adjustment mechanisms do not work properly or any securing device does not hold the seat in the selected position;
  • Any seat has an exposed sharp edge or other parts that protrude due to damage.

Check exterior body panels and fittings

  • Exterior body work including mudguards, bullbars, roof racks etc on a vehicle have exposed sharp edges (including corrosion or accident damage) that could injure a person who comes into contact with that part of the vehicle;
  • Mudguards are not properly fitted to provide protection over the full width of the wheels and tyres and any mudguard does not extend inboard over the full width of the tyre/s (except where part of the body of the vehicle acts as a mudguard);
  • The bottom edge of mudguard and/or mudflap at the rear of any vehicle is higher off the ground that 1/3 of the horizontal distance between the centre of the axle and the mudguard;
  • Spray suppression devices are not fitted to ‘B’ Double combinations in accordance with Rule 33 Australian Vehicle Standard Rules or in those states that have granted exemption (eg: WA);

Check fifth wheels/turntables

  • Where ADR 62 applies, the fifth wheel/turntable does not display the manufacturer’s name/trademark, nominal size (eg 50mm) and the gross mass rating;
  • The mating parts of a coupling used to connect a semi-trailer to a towing vehicle allow the semi-trailer to roll to an extent that makes the towing vehicle unstable (eg quick release turntable fitted to a ballrace turntable);
  • The top and bottom mounting flanges have insufficient effective fasteners (eg ballrace);
  • Fasteners either side of the mounting frame, plate or pivot brackets are insufficient or ineffective;
  • Fifth wheel/turntable mounting plate or sub frame assembly securing bolts are missing, broken or loose, or the fasteners are "U" bolts;
  • There is movement between the fixed mounting components;
  • There is more than 5 mm horizontal movement between:

Check pin couplings and pintle hooks

  • Where ADR 62 applies a 50mm pin type coupling does not display the manufacturer’s name/trademark, rated vertical load and the gross mass rating;
  • Pin couplings or pintle hooks have any missing, loose, broken, deformed or cracked fasteners including welds. (See Figure 2.2);
  • Any mounting bolts, fasteners or weld beads have advanced corrosion;
  • The area that the pin coupling or pintle hook is mounted on is loose or cracked or any locking mechanism is not fitted or is inoperative;
  • The pin coupling or pintle hook welds have cracks; Pin couplings or pintle hooks are worn beyond the manufacturer’s limits. If the manufacturer’s limits are not known, any dimension on a wear surface of the horn of a pintle hook or pin coupling is worn more than 5% of the original diameter.

Many Organizations Support Strong Safety Belt Laws for Teens

Many organizations have joined with NHTSA to help increase safety belt use among teens because they realize that by doing so, thousands of lives will be saved and millions of injuries will be prevented. These organizations include:

  • 4-H
  • AAA
  • Advocates for Highway/Auto Safety
  • Air Bag & Seat Belt Safety Campaign
  • American Driver and Traffic Safety Education Association
  • American School Health Association
  • Aspira Association, Inc.
  • Automotive Coalition for Traffic Safety
  • Bacchus and Gamma Peer Education Network
  • Brain Injury Association
  • Center for Substance Abuse Prevention
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
  • Children's Safety Network
  • Circle K International
  • Emergency Medical Services for Children Emergency Nurses Association/Emergency Nurses CARE
  • Family, Career and Community Leaders of America
  • Farm Safety 4 Just Kids
  • Governors Highway Safety Association
  • Insurance Institute for Highway Safety
  • International Association of Campus Law Enforcement Administrators
  • Jack and Jill of America, Inc.
  • Mothers Against Drunk Driving
  • Maternal and Child Health Bureau
  • National Association of School Resource Officers
  • National Association of Teen Institutes
  • National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy
  • National Children's Center for Rural and Agricultural Health and Safety
  • National Commission Against Drunk Driving
  • National Criminal Justice Association
  • National Peer Helpers Association
  • National Parent Teachers Association
  • National SAFE KIDS Campaign
  • National Safety Belt Coalition/National Safety Council
  • National Student Safety Program
  • Network of Employers for Traffic Safety
  • Recording Artists, Actors & Athletes Against Drunk Driving (RADD)
  • RADD Kids/Team RADD
  • Remove Intoxicated Drivers family with buckle up america, every trip, every time logoThe State and Territorial Injury Prevention Directors' Association
  • Street Law, Inc.
  • Students Against Destructive Decisions
  • Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration
  • Think First Foundation
  • United National Indian Tribal Youth
  • U. S. Department of Education
  • U. S. Department of Health and Human Services
  • U. S. Department of Justice
  • Youth of Virginia Speak Out About Traffic Safety
  • YMCA of the United States of America

Restrict passengers

Teen passengers in a vehicle can distract a beginning driver and/or lead to greater risk-taking.Because young drivers often transport their friends, there’s a teen passenger problem as well as a teen driver problem. About 6 of every 10 teenage passenger deaths (59%) during 2003 occurred in crashes with a teen driver. While night driving with passengers is particularly lethal, many fatal crashes with teen passengers occur during the day.The best policy is to restrict teenage passengers, especially multiple teens, all the time.

Visually inspect remote filled internally mounted containers

  • The compartment housing the container and its fittings, or the sub-compartment has electrical equipment other than the wiring connecting the contents gauge;
  • wiring is not insulated or secured at interval of not more than 600mm;
  • any conduit containing the piping and hoses which pass through an enclosed area of the vehicle is missing or damaged so that it allows venting to the inside of the vehicle;
  • the clamps for the conduit connections are missing or loose;
  • there are holes in the conduit through which wiring can be passed;

NOTE: Adhesives or sealing compounds are not acceptable as alternatives to mechanical clamps.

  • the container service valve is inoperable;
  • the seals for any sub-compartment do not provide a gas-tight seal;
  • the container space vent outlet is less than 250mm from the exhaust system.

Check engine and driveline

  • Engine and driveline mounts or driveline components are loose, cracked, broken or are missing components or fasteners;
  • Any universal joint or securing bolts are loose or missing;
  • Engine and transmission controls are inoperative;
  • A vehicle fitted with automatic transmission is capable of being started when the transmission control is in a position to drive the vehicle;
  • A vehicle fitted with automatic transmission does not have, in the driver’s compartment, an indicator showing the transmission control position (where applicable);
  • Seals on covers between the engine and the passenger compartment are missing, distorted or damaged in a way that allows fumes to enter the passenger compartment;
  • Engine emits excessive smoke for at least 10 seconds continually at or near the discharge end of the exhaust pipe;
  • Emission control equipment is missing or inoperative;

NOTE: Modifications to emission equipment can effect smoke emission or emission of non-visible pollutants

  • Crankcase gases escape into the atmosphere (applies to petrol engines fitted with positive crankcase ventilation only);
  • The engine lets out sparks, flames, oil or fuel residue;
  • A diesel engine is not fitted with a device that prevents the engine from being started accidentally or inadvertently;
  • Fuel injection equipment, engine speed governor or any other part of an engine is adjusted so that it increases smoke;
  • Maximum road speed limiting is greater than 100kph or State and Territory instructions. See ADR 65.

NOTE: Adjustments or modifications to components of the fuel system have the potential to affect compliance of a vehicle with emission standards. The manufacturer’s advice should be sought to ensure the vehicle is kept within prescribed limits. A test to determine compliance with National Diesel Emission Standards may be undertaken in jurisdictions that have the necessary test equipment.

Check air brake system integrity (including air over hydraulic)

Step 1. Start the engine and charge up the braking system until the low pressure warning device turns off. Apply the brake several times until the low pressure warning device activates.

  1. A visual or audible warning device connected to the brake system does not provide a warning to the driver when the air pressure is lowered to less than the following levels, unless the manufacturer specifies a different level:

  • 420 kPa (60psi) for ADR 35 vehicles, or
  • 350 kPa (50psi) for pre-ADR 35 vehicles

Step 2. Build the pressure up to its maximum level and note this pressure

  1. The cut-out pressure is more than 1120 kPa (160psi), or less than 720kPa (100psi) unless other values are recommended by the manufacturer.

Step 3. With the engine running, apply the service brakes several times until the governor "cuts in"

The governor cut-in pressure is less than 550kPa (80psi), unless another value is recommended by the manufacturer.

Step 4. Recharge the system to maximum pressure. Stop the engine. Have the assistant apply and hold the service brake. Check around the vehicle for audible air leaks

  1. Any air leak;
  2. With the brake system fully charged, the engine stopped and the service brake applied, the air brake pressure drops more than 20 kPa (3psi) per minute. An additional drop per minute of 5 kPa is allowed for each trailer that may be attached.

Step 5. Release the service brake

  1. With the engine stopped and the service brake released, the air brake pressure drops more than 15 kPa per minute. An additional drop per minute of 5 kPa is allowed for each trailer that may be attached.

Step 6. Fully apply and release the service brake four more times

  1. After four more full applications of the service brakes the reservoir pressure drops to less than 50 % of the maximum value observed in Step

Step 7. Fully deplete the braking system by repeatedly applying the service brake. Observe the operation of the low pressure warning device (see "reason for rejection" (a)). Observe operation of spring brakes, if fitted.

  1. Spring brakes activate before the low pressure warning device activates.

Step 8. Apply and release the parking brake

  1. The parking brake is inoperative or is unable to be released at least once.
Step 9. Charge up the braking system by operating the engine at manufacturer's recommended speed, if necessary. Note the time it takes for the system to charge from zero to 80% of the maximum pressure (as noted in Step 2).

  1. Time taken to charge from zero to 80% of maximum pressure exceeds 5 minutes.

Step 10. One at a time, open the drain valve of each reservoir for a sufficient time to notice a pressure drop on the pressure gauge(s)

  1. Air reservoir drain valves are inoperative;
  2. Excessive oil drains from the reservoir (this usually indicates a faulty compressor);
  3. Where ADR 35 applies, the pressure in both sub-circuits falls when the reservoir of one of the sub-circuits is drained.
Note: Although it is usually a sign of neglected brake maintenance, excessive water in a reservoir is not a reason for rejection, provided that it is fully drained during the check.

Step 11. Where ADR35 applies and the vehicle is new, or has had major brake repairs involving plumbing, one sub-circuit should be fully drained and a check made that the brakes on the remaining sub-circuit operate when the service brake is applied (observe actuators or feel for pressure in flexible brake lines). The brake pressure should then be recharged and the test repeated for the other sub-circuit.

  1. When the air-pressure in one (and only one) sub-circuit is fully drained any brake connected to the other sub-circuit fails to operate when the service brake is applied;
  2. Where fitted, spring brakes apply when one sub-circuit is fully drained.

Check brake components

Reasons for rejection

  • Brake pedals do not have an anti-slip surface across the complete surface;
  • Brake pedals or handles are broken or missing;
  • Brake control mountings, pivots, cables or links are kinked, loose, broken, excessively worn or binding;
  • A ratchet or locking device on a parking brake control does not hold the parking brake in the applied position;
  • Park brake control can be released with only one action;
  • Abrasions or cuts on brake hoses penetrate further than the outer protective covering;
  • Brake pipes, hoses and connections are cracked, broken, kinked, crimped, damaged by heat or have visible signs of leakage, swelling or bulging;
  • Brake drums or discs are not fitted or have missing pieces, or cracks other than short heat cracks inside the drums;
  • Drums or discs are worn beyond manufacturers specifications;
  • Any caliper, wheel cylinder or master cylinder leaks;
  • Linings or pads are contaminated with oil, grease or brake fluid;
  • The thickness of the linings or pads is less than the manufacturer’s recommended minimum. If this is not known or is no longer appropriate, the thickness of the linings or pads is less than

Check windscreen and windows

Reasons for rejection

  1. The wiped area of the windscreen in front of and on the same side of the vehicle as the driver, (shown in the following diagram as Area A), has:

  • damage (such as scoring, sandblasting or severe discolouration) that interferes with the driver’s view;
  • any bulls-eye or star fracture that exceeds 16 mm in diameter, or any two (2) of the following;
  • hairline crack up to 30 mm long;
  • a crack from the edge of the windscreen up to 75 mm long.

NOTE: Grooves in windscreens that are designed specifically to clean the wiper blades are not regarded as damage unless they affect the driver’s view. Approved grooving is usually identified by the installer.

  1. Any cracks in a laminated windscreen penetrate more than one layer of glass or are more than 150 mm long;
  2. Any glazing used in any motor vehicle is not safety glass (except a caravan) and where ADR 8 applies, the glass does not display an identification mark or symbol;
  3. Glazing is loose in its frame or cracked to the extent that sharp edges are exposed;
  4. Glazing, other than the windscreen, that is necessary for the driver to see the road is discoloured, obscured, badly scratched, sandblasted or fractured to the extent that it interferes with the driver’s view;
  5. Items that obscure the driver’s view are placed in Area A or the corresponding area on the other side of the windscreen.

Check seat belts

Reasons for rejection

  1. Any seat belt or attaching point is loose, cracked or has missing fasteners;
  2. Any retractor, buckle or adjustment device is inoperative;
  3. Webbing is cut, burnt, tied in a knot, frayed, stretched, severely deteriorated or has broken stitching.
  4. Seat belts are not fitted in accordance with the table below.

Check Rear Marker Plates

Reasons for rejection

  • Rear marker plates not fitted to a truck that has a GVM greater than 12 tonnes;
  • Rear marker plates not fitted to a bus that has no provision for standing passengers;
  • Rear marker plates do not comply with AS 4001.1-1992 or State or Territory instructions;
  • Rear marker plates are faded, damaged or incorrectly fitted.

Check suspension components

  • U-bolts or other spring to axle or spring pack clamp bolts, centre bolts, spring eyes or hangers, torque, radius or tracking component assemblies, control arms, bushes or any parts used to attach them to the vehicle frame or axle are cracked, loose, broken, missing or worn beyond manufacturers’ limits;
  • Any "walking beam" type heavy vehicle suspension has signs of damage to beam;
  • Springs are cracked, broken or missing;
  • Air bags leak or sag;
  • Leaves in a leaf spring are displaced sideways more than 10% of their width or so that they contact wheels, brakes or the frame;
  • Shock absorbers, if originally fitted, are missing, loose, inoperative or leak;
  • Any suspension component is not correctly aligned or is damaged, loose or broken;
  • Any nut, bolt or locking mechanism is insecure or missing.

Check fifth wheels/turntables

  • Where ADR 62 applies, the fifth wheel/turntable does not display the manufacturer’s name/trademark, nominal size (eg 50mm) and the gross mass rating;
  • The mating parts of a coupling used to connect a semi-trailer to a towing vehicle allow the semi-trailer to roll to an extent that makes the towing vehicle unstable (eg quick release turntable fitted to a ballrace turntable);
  • The top and bottom mounting flanges have insufficient effective fasteners (eg ballrace);
  • Fasteners either side of the mounting frame, plate or pivot brackets are insufficient or ineffective;
  • Fifth wheel/turntable mounting plate or sub frame assembly securing bolts are missing, broken or loose, or the fasteners are "U" bolts;
  • There is movement between the fixed mounting components;
  • There is more than 5 mm horizontal movement between:

* the pivot bracket pin and bracket, or
* a slider bracket and slide base.

  • There are cracks in mounting angles or plates, pivot brackets, slider components or coupler plates except for casting shrinkage cracks;
  • The fifth wheel pivot bracket pin/s or bushes are missing, insecure or excessively worn;
  • The locking mechanism on either side of a sliding coupling is missing, inoperative or excessively worn;
  • End stops on slides are missing or insecure;
  • King pin locking mechanism parts are missing, or damaged to the extent that the king pin is not securely held;
  • The top and bottom plates, flanges and welds are loose, cracked, missing or broken;
  • Ball bearing type turntables are worn beyond the manufacturer’s specifications, or to the extent that the upper and lower flanges or bearing halves touch each other or the ball bearings seize.

Teens Are At Risk

  • Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death for teens in the United States.
  • In 2003, 5,240 teens were killed in passenger-vehicle crashes, and 458,000 teens were injured.
  • Sixty-three percent of the fatally injured 16-to-20-year-old passenger vehicle occupants were unrestrained, compared to 55 percent for adults 21 or older.
  • In 2003, the fatality rate (per 100,000 population) in motor vehicle crashes for 16-to-20-year-olds was more than twice the rate than for all other ages combined (25.7 versus 11.4 respectively).
  • From 1997 to 2003, the fatality rate (per 100,000 population) in motor vehicle crashes for 16-to-20-year-olds was approximately seven times the rate for 8-to-15-year-olds.
  • Drivers are less likely to use restraints when they have been drinking. In 2003, 65 percent of the young drivers (15 to 20 years old) of passenger vehicles involved in fatal crashes who had been drinking were unrestrained. Of the young drivers who had been drinking and were killed in crashes, 74 percent were unrestrained.
  • During 2003, a teen died in a traffic crash an average of once every hour on weekends (weekends are defined as 6 p.m. Friday through 5:59 a.m. Monday) and nearly once every two hours during the week.
  • In 2003, 34 percent (1,782) of fatally injured teens were completely or partially ejected from a passenger vehicle, compared with 27 percent of those fatally injured for all ages combined.
  • Male teens are less likely to wear safety belts than female teens. In 2003, a greater number of males (7.7 percent) reported they were likely to rarely or never use safety belts when driving compared with females (2.8 percent). More males (26.4 percent) than females (23.6 percent) also reported that they had not worn their safety belts within the past week.
  • A recent medical study examined motor vehicle fatality exposure rates and found the rate at which African American and Hispanic male teenagers (13 to 19 years old) are fatally injured in a motor vehicle crash is nearly twice as high as the comparable rate for white male teenagers.

Beginning Drivers’ Crashes Differ

Teen drivers have the highest crash risk of any age group. Per mile traveled, they have the highest involvement rates in crashes, from crashes involving property damage only to those that are fatal. The problem is worst among 16-year-olds, who have the most limited driving experience and an immaturity that often results in risk-taking behind the wheel. The characteristics of 16-year-olds’ fatal crashes shed light on the problem

Reflashing (Chip Reflashing)

Reflashing involves reconfiguring the engine control chip with new software that recalibrates the tractor engine. This recalibration is meant to lower nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions by slightly modifying the combustion parameters within the engine. This strategy applies to certain engines built by seven different engine manufacturers (Caterpillar, Cummins, Detroit Diesel, Mack, Renault, Navistar/International & Volvo) between the years of 1993 and 1998. Please note that as of March 2004, the California Air Resources Board (CARB) has mandated the reflashing of medium and heavy duty diesel vehicles in the state of California, on a phase-in schedule, at no extra cost to the vehicle owner. For more information, please refer to the CARB rule

Integrated Vehicle-Based Safety Systems (IVBSS) Field Operational Test

The IVBSS initiative seeks to establish a partnership with the automotive and commercial vehicle industries to accelerate the introduction of integrated vehicle-based safety systems into the nation's vehicle fleet. This is the first attempt to fully integrate the individual solutions that address three types of crashes: rear-end, road departure, and lane-change. The IVBSS will combine existing research results and state-of-the-art commercial products and product performance for all systems related to this problem.